The International Standards
of the Drug Evaluation and
A Product of
The DEC Standards Revision Subcommittee
of the Technical Advisory Panel
of the IACP Highway Safety Committee
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3
STANDARDS FOR THE DRUG EVALUATION
AND CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM 8
Standards for Certification as a Drug
Recognition Expert 8
Standards for Certification as Drug
Recognition Expert Instructor 15
Standards for Recertification 19
Standards for Decertification of DREs
and Instructors 21
Standards for Reinstatement of a Decertified
Drug Recognition Expert 23
Standards for Agency Participation 24
ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES 28
Since 1984, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has supported the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. The program which was initially developed by the Los Angeles, California, Police Department, was validated through both laboratory and field studies conducted by Johns Hopkins University. In 1987, the Highway Safety Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) was requested by NHTSA to participate in the development and national expansion of the program. As the program grew, it became apparent that in order to ensure continued success, nationally accepted standards needed to be established. These standards, which establish criteria for the selection, training and certification of drug recognition experts, helped to ensure the continued high level of performance of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. In 1988, NHTSA asked the IACP and its Highway Safety Committee to develop this system of nationally accepted standards.
In March of 1989, the IACP and NHTSA sponsored a meeting at the Transportation Safety Institute in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Persons invited to this meeting included experienced drug recognition experts, instructors, curriculum specialists, toxicologists, prosecutors and training administrators. The participants met in working groups to reach consensus concerning the many issues relating to the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program and to develop recommended minimum standards to the Highway Safety Committee. The standards were drafted and presented to the committee for review at its mid-year meeting in June 1989. In addition, the committee agreed to name a Drug Evaluation and Classification Technical Advisory Panel to assist and advise the committee concerning technical aspects relating to the operation of the program.
The Highway Safety Committee, by resolution, adopted the Interim National Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. The standards were subsequently approved by the voting membership of the IACP. The standards were adopted on an interim basis pending the outcome of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the program to be performed by NHTSA. In October 1992, the standards were officially approved and adopted. Revisions and updates are periodically made to the standards.
Presented in this document are standards specifying the requirements for certification and recertification of DREs and DRE instructors; standards for decertification and reinstatement; and standards for agency participation. Also, for those agencies participating in the program, a set of administrative guidelines is provided.
These standards, when adopted by other countries, will be administered pursuant to their political structure.
Persons not certified as DREs but who possess knowledge, expertise or credentials deemed valuable to the program may be designated as associate instructors for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC):
A person's blood alcohol concentration indicates the grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. For example, a BAC of 0.10% means that there is one-tenth of a gram of alcohol in 100 milliliters of the person's blood.
An individual in the process of achieving certification as a drug recognition expert. To achieve certification, a person must successfully complete a training program consisting of
A two-day IACP/NHTSA-approved DRE preschool
A seven-day IACP/NHTSA-approved DRE school
CANDIDATE DRE INSTRUCTOR:
An individual in the process of achieving certification as a DRE instructor. To achieve certification, a DRE must successfully complete the IACP/NHTSA-approved DRE instructor training, conduct a minimum of two hours of DRE training, and witness two drug evaluations.
An individual who ensures that each training event follows the standardized curriculum and evaluates the training event to identify ways to improve it. The course manager represents the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the International Association of Chiefs of Police and resolves issues with the content and/or delivery of the training.
The appropriate DRE coordinator will be one of the following:
Agency Coordinator: The person designated within each department or agency responsible for maintaining program records, ensuring maintenance of program standards and conducting training and certification sessions within the agency. Responsibility for this function may rest with one individual, in the case of a small or closely coordinated effort, or may be decentralized among several people throughout the agency. If there is no designated agency coordinator, the appropriate DRE coordinator shall be the state coordinator.
State Coordinator: In each of the states in which the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program has been implemented under the auspices of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, an individual has been designated to act as the statewide coordinator for the DEC Program. The duties of the position generally include but are not limited to
1. Acting as an information clearinghouse and central communication point for the program within the state.
2. Assisting in coordinating training and other support activities for all agencies participating in the program within the state.
3. Coordinating the assignment of instructors in response to requests for service from federal and other sources.
The Governor’s Office of Highway Safety shall be responsible for designating the state coordinator. If there is no designated state coordinator, the appropriate DRE coordinator shall be the TAP regional coordinator, who shall assume the duties and responsibilities as described above.
TAP Regional Coordinator: One DRE from each of the four regions, as established by the Division of State and Provincial Police, is appointed by the IACP Highway Safety Committee Chair to serve on the Technical Advisory Panel.
Individuals who, having been trained and certified as drug recognition experts, receive further training and experience instructing within the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. Certified instructors will usually be certified DREs with experience in performing drug evaluations and in providing testimony in court in the area of drug recognition. Certified instructors are responsible for observing, evaluating and verifying the performance of candidate DREs.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AGENCY:
For purposes of these standards, a criminal justice agency is any organization, funded by public monies, that is involved in the apprehension, prosecution, adjudication of public miscreants; or in the incarceration, detention, supervision or control of said miscreants following apprehension, prosecution and/or adjudication.
For purposes of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, a drug is any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability to operate a motor vehicle safely. Note that this is not necessarily a strict medical definition.
A process of systematically examining a person suspected of being under the influence of a drug, for the purpose of ascertaining what category of drugs (or combination of categories) is causing the person's impairment. A trained DRE can identify, with a high degree of reliability, the distinguishing signs and symptoms of seven broad categories of drugs.
DRUG EVALUATION AND CLASSIFICATION TECHNICAL ADVISORY PANEL:
This group was formed to assist the Highway Safety Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police on specific matters relating to the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. These matters include the revision of the approved training curriculum, review and approval of proposed alternative training programs, and other matters relating to the technical aspects of the DEC Program.
DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERT (DRE):
An individual who has successfully completed all phases of training requirements for certification established by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
HIGHWAY SAFETY COMMITTEE:
A standing committee of the IACP that addresses highway safety issues.
HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS (HGN):
A loss of the normal control of the eyes observed as an involuntary jerking occurring when a person attempts to follow as stimulus with the eyes and/or looks to the left or right side.
One of the several terms used to describe the degradation of mental and/or motor abilities necessary for safely operating a motor vehicle.
Every state has enacted a version of an Implied Consent law, which serves to encourage persons arrested for DWI to submit to a chemical test to determine blood alcohol content. Many states also allow for the testing of blood, breath or urine for the presence of drugs and/or alcohol. The concept of implied consent is that the state views the suspect as already having agreed to take the test, as a condition of operating a vehicle in the state. The typical wording of an implied consent law is as follows: AAny person who operates a motor vehicle upon the public highways of this state shall be deemed to have given consent to a chemical test or tests for the purpose of determining the alcohol (or drug) content of his or her blood, when arrested for any act alleged to have been committed while the person was operating a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol (or any drug).@
The law further provides that, if the arrestee nevertheless refuses to submit to the chemical test, he or she will not be forced to submit, but the driver's license will be suspended or revoked.
With grant assistance from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Division of State and Provincial Police of the IACP has agreed to develop standards and assist in managing the certification process for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. As part of this agreement, the IACP will perform necessary staff and coordination functions for the program. The staff of the Division of State and Provincial Police is responsible for maintaining records for the program and will coordinate certification and recertification processes.
An experienced DRE instructor who conducts instructor training courses and who must be knowledgeable of and have audited all phases of the Drug Evaluation and Classification training program and must be fully conversant with the student and instructor manuals.
of the several terms used to describe the degradation of mental and/or motor
skills and other faculties due to ingestion of alcohol or other drugs.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, within the United States Department of Transportation that exercises primary responsibility for coordinating federal efforts to ensure the safe design and operation of motor vehicles.
STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TESTS:
The Standardized Field Sobriety Tests include three tests that were developed and validated through a series of controlled experiments supported by research grants from NHTSA. The three tests include Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN); Walk and Turn (WAT); and One Leg Stand (OLS).
The HGN test is described elsewhere in these definitions.
and Turn and One Leg Stand are divided
attention tests. As such, they require the suspect to concentrate on more
than one thing at a time.
The training course developed by IACP and NHTSA, “DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing,” is a program designed to train traffic enforcement officers to administer the sobriety tests. The training includes two approved alcohol workshops. During these workshops, students practice administering the test battery. In order to complete the course satisfactorily, students must pass a written examination and demonstrate proficiency in administering the field sobriety test battery.
I. STANDARDS FOR CERTIFICATION AS A DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERT
The standards in this section specify the criteria that must be met prior to an individual's being certified as a drug recognition expert (DRE). These criteria outline the knowledge and skills required to be considered for training, as well as the knowledge and proficiencies required for final certification.
The currently approved curriculum involves a three-phase training process. Prior to beginning the training program, students are required to be trained in and demonstrate proficiency in the use of the IACP/NHTSA-approved standardized field sobriety tests, including the horizontal gaze nystagmus test. Phase I of the drug recognition training consists of a two-day (16-hour) preschool. During this preschool, students are taught the definition of the term “drug” as it is used in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, and become familiar with the techniques of the drug evaluation. Students also begin to learn the techniques and procedures for evaluating persons suspected of drug impairment.
Phase II of training is a seven-day (56-hour) classroom program during which students receive detailed instruction in the techniques of the drug evaluation examination as well as in physiology, the effects of drugs and legal considerations. Upon completion of this phase of training, the student must pass a comprehensive written examination before proceeding to Phase III of training, the field certification.
The field certification portion of training follows completion of the classroom training and is conducted at periodic intervals for the next sixty to ninety days. During this portion of the training, students, under the direction of certified instructors, evaluate subjects suspected of being impaired by drugs other than alcohol. After participating in and documenting the results of at least twelve drug evaluations and completing a comprehensive examination, the student is certified as a drug recognition expert.
1.1 In order to be considered for certification as a drug recognition expert, a person shall be in the employ and under the direct control of a public criminal justice agency or institution involved in providing training services to officers of law enforcement agencies.
Commentary: At the discretion of the agency head or administrator, and with the consent of the training body, other persons may audit or observe any or all portions of the DRE training. Persons attending the course as auditors or observers shall not be eligible for certification.
Persons pursuing certification as drug recognition experts for the purpose of instructing in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program must meet all requirements for certification and recertification in order to maintain their standing as DREs or DRE instructors.
1.2 The candidate DRE must have experience in preparing comprehensive investigative reports and in providing detailed court testimony.
Commentary: The technical nature of the drug evaluation process and the need to provide detailed and accurate documentation of findings and conclusions requires proficiency in preparing reports. Candidate DREs should have demonstrated the ability to investigate, document and prepare detailed reports of incidents such as major traffic crashes or criminal violations. In addition, DREs must be able to provide court testimony concerning their methods and results, as well as their training and qualifications.
1.3 All DRE candidates must attend and complete the IACP/NHTSA-approved course of instruction in Standardized Field Sobriety Testing, or an equivalent curriculum approved by the IACP Highway Safety Committee and Technical Advisory Panel. They shall demonstrate proficiency in the use of Standardized Field Sobriety Tests, to the satisfaction of a DRE instructor, by the conclusion of the IACP/NHTSA DRE Pre-school or a school meeting Standard 1.2 above.
Commentary: The drug evaluation process requires that the contribution of alcohol to observed impairment be determined. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has developed, and the IACP has adopted, the Standardized Field Sobriety Test procedure in conjunction with immediate breath testing, as a means of identifying the alcohol-impaired driver. If the effects of alcohol are determined not to be the sole cause of impairment, the officer can begin the evaluation process to determine what other causes may be responsible.
In order to conform to the IACP/NHTSA model curriculum, SFST training must contain the specified number of hours and include at least two approved alcohol workshops. In addition, the training must instruct students in the administration of the horizontal gaze nystagmus, walk and turn, and one leg stand tests.
Each agency should ensure that candidates submitted for DRE training have had adequate time prior to beginning the training program to develop and to demonstrate proficiency in the use of SFST/HGN or allow for refresher training in these techniques as necessary.
1.4 All DRE candidates must attend and complete the IACP/NHTSA DRE Pre-school or an IACP-recognized equivalent prior to progressing to Phase II, the DRE School.
1.5 Prior to attending phase II of the DRE training, the candidate shall have met the learning objectives for phase I of the training program, the IACP/NHTSA-approved DRE preschool. The candidate shall be able to
1. Define the term “drug” as it is used in the DEC Program;
2. Name the seven drug categories identified in the DRE training program;
3. Measure vital signs, including blood pressure, pulse and body temperature;
4. Show familiarity with the 12-step drug recognition evaluation process;
5. Demonstrate proficiency in the administration of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests, including Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus;
6. Show familiarity with the administration of the eye examinations, including pupil size, vertical nystagmus and lack of convergence.
These learning objectives are generally met through completion of Phase I, the DRE preschool. However, agencies have the latitude to determine the best means of ensuring that candidate DREs meet the prerequisites. The agency must verify, through the application process to the instructor responsible for delivering the training, that a candidate meets all requirements. Each candidate DRE will be required to demonstrate the knowledge and skills outlined.
Administrative guidelines and suggested application forms containing the necessary information will be provided by IACP staff to agencies and training institutions.
1.6 The candidate DRE shall complete an approved classroom training course which shall, at minimum, achieve the learning objectives as stated in the IACP-approved training curriculum.
Commentary: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the International Association of Chiefs of Police have developed a classroom training course that, when completed, qualifies the student to proceed to the field certification portion of the training program. Because of differences in the type and level of training for officers in the detection of the impaired subject, agencies should determine the most effective means of providing classroom training in drug recognition. However, in order to maintain the credibility and integrity of the certification program, agencies that use a training program other than that currently approved by the IACP, must have the alternative curriculum approved by the IACP Technical Advisory Panel as meeting learning objectives. In addition, the Technical Advisory Panel will be responsible for providing periodic updates and modifications to the IACP training curriculum.
1.7 All candidate DREs shall attend and complete all classroom portions of an approved DRE curriculum prior to progressing to Phase III (the field certification phase) of the training. This shall include satisfactorily completing all assignments and required examinations. Students shall not be permitted to “test out” of portions of the training, nor shall they be permitted to attend only those classes that they have not previously completed.
Commentary: Class sessions missed should be made up prior to the final exam.
1.8 In order to complete satisfactorily the classroom portion of the training and proceed to field certification, candidate DREs must complete an IACP-approved final examination with a score of not less than eighty percent (80%). Candidates scoring less than 80% on the final examination may be retested one time, under the supervision of a certified DRE instructor. The retest shall be completed not less than fifteen nor more than thirty days following the completion of the classroom training.
Commentary: Upon satisfactory completion of the examination, the candidate may then proceed to field certification. The examination used to retest the candidate shall be an IACP-approved examination and shall not have been administered to the candidate previously. If the candidate does not achieve a passing score on reexamination, the candidate must retake the classroom portion of the training and pass the knowledge examination before proceeding further in the certification process.
1.9 Upon completion of the field certification phase of training, the candidate must demonstrate the ability to conduct a complete drug evaluation in an approved sequence and appropriately document and interpret the results. The candidate must also be able to document the findings of the evaluation and demonstrate proficiency in interviewing techniques.
Commentary: One of the primary factors in the success of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program has been the emphasis upon a standardized approach to the drug recognition process. The training stresses the importance of a systematic, structured approach to performing the drug evaluation. This includes completing all portions of the evaluation in the appropriate sequence. Upon conclusion of an evaluation the DRE reviews the results of all tests, examinations and observations; documents the findings; and draws a conclusion based on the totality of the evidence.
1.10 To be considered for certification as a drug recognition expert, the candidate must satisfactorily complete a minimum of twelve (12) drug evaluations, during which the candidate must encounter and identify subjects under the influence of at least three of the drug categories as described in the DRE training program. All three drug categories must be supported by toxicology.
Of the evaluations required for certification, the candidate shall administer at least six evaluations. The candidate may observe the remaining evaluations. Certification training evaluations will be conducted in accordance with the current procedures and guidelines established in the DECP training curricula.
All evaluations, either administered or observed, and documented for certification purposes, shall be observed and supervised by at least one certified DRE instructor.
Commentary: Ideally, a drug evaluation will be performed by no more than two persons: the evaluator and one observer. At no time should more than four persons participate in an evaluation, as the results of the evaluation may be influenced by the distraction caused by a large number of persons observing the process.
1.11 Prior to completing the certification phase of training, the candidate DRE must demonstrate the ability to draw correct conclusions consistent with observed physiological signs and symptoms. In addition, the conclusions must be supported by the findings of a forensic toxicology laboratory. No candidate DRE shall be certified as a drug recognition expert unless blood, urine, or other appropriate biological samples are obtained and submitted from at least nine (9) subjects whom the candidate DRE has examined for certification purposes. These may include subjects for whom the candidate DRE served as the examination recorder or observer as well as those subjects directly evaluated by the candidate DRE. Further, the candidate DRE cannot be certified unless the opinion concerning the drug category or categories affecting the subject is supported by forensic toxicological analysis seventy-five percent (75%) of the time, or in at least seven (7) of the nine (9) samples submitted for certification purposes. For purposes of this standard, a candidate DRE’s opinion is supported if the toxicological analysis discloses the presence of at least one drug category named by the candidate DRE. In the event that the candidate DRE has concluded that three or more categories of drugs are involved, at least two categories must be supported by toxicology results.
Commentary: Successful and uniform application of this standard places important forensic toxicological requirements on the program. First, the blood or urine specimen must be obtained as soon as possible after the arrest so that the contents of the sample refer to the subject's status at the time of the offense. Second, the sample must be properly sealed, stored, transported to the forensic toxicology laboratory and analyzed in a timely fashion to maintain the integrity of the specimen. Third, the drug recognition examination should be conducted as soon as possible after the offense so that the results of the evaluation accurately refer to the subject's status at the time of the offense. Fourth, the laboratory should use its full powers of analysis and detection to attempt to identify each category named by a candidate DRE; in some cases this may require the laboratory to modify its routine screening and confirmation procedures. Finally, the laboratory must complete its report on the samples as soon as possible and provide a copy of the report to the arresting officer, DRE or candidate DRE submitting the sample. It is the submitting officer's responsibility to provide a report to each DRE or candidate DRE who participated in the evaluation.
Although the candidate DRE must complete a minimum of twelve (12) drug evaluations (standard 1.10), standard 1.11 requires only 75 percent of those to include a biological sample. This allows for those cases in which a biological sample is unavailable, such as when a subject refuses or cannot provide one. In those cases when an evaluation is not supported by forensic toxicology, a certified DRE instructor should ensure that the candidate DRE’s opinion was based on observable signs and symptoms consistent with the opinion.
1.12 Prior to concluding field certification training, the candidate shall satisfactorily complete an approved “Certification Knowledge Examination.” The examination shall be administered and the results reviewed by at least one certified instructor. The examination shall only be administered after the candidate has completed not less than three drug evaluations.
Commentary: The “Certification Knowledge Examination” consists of a comprehensive written examination followed by a detailed interview with the reviewing instructor(s). As stated previously, certification is based on the evaluation by the instructor(s) of the skills and abilities of the candidate rather than on the completion of a specified set of tasks. The purpose of the examination and interview is to aid the instructor(s) in evaluating the candidate's qualifications, performance and general abilities.
The examination should be administered when, in the judgment of the reviewing instructor(s), the candidate has demonstrated proficiency in conducting, evaluating and documenting results of the drug evaluation process.
1.13 The candidate DRE shall complete the field certification phase of training within six months following completion of the classroom training, unless the time limit is extended by the appropriate DRE coordinator.
Commentary: Under normal circumstances, a candidate not completing field certification within the prescribed time period will be dropped from the program. However, a reevaluation of the candidate's qualifications and the reasons for non-completion may be conducted by the appropriate DRE coordinator to determine whether or not circumstances exist that indicate that the candidate should continue in the program.
1.14 By the time the candidate DRE has completed field certification training, the candidate shall have prepared a résumé which shall reflect the candidate’s training and experience in drug recognition. The résumé shall include a complete log of all evaluations in which the candidate has participated.
Commentary: In order to be accepted as a credible witness, the drug recognition expert must be able to document and articulate a body of information concerning training, qualifications and experience in the field of drug evaluation and classification. Toward this end, candidates are instructed in the importance and proper preparation of a professional résumé.
1.15 When the candidate DRE has satisfactorily completed all requirements of the classroom and field certification portions of training, at least two certified DRE instructors who have observed the candidate during the field certification process will verify that the candidate meets all requirements for certification as a drug recognition expert.
Commentary: The certification process relies in large part on the judgment of the instructor(s) as to the abilities and performance of the candidate. Experience has shown that in many cases, particularly those in which a candidate's qualifications may be in question, the opinion of a second instructor as to readiness for certification is of value. In addition, the use of a second instructor to evaluate the candidate may overcome any bias, either for or against a candidate. For these reasons, each candidate must be evaluated by at least two instructors prior to becoming certified as a DRE.
1.16 Following completion of certification requirements, copies of all
documents, including test results, evaluation logs and drug evaluation reports
shall be forwarded to the agency DRE coordinator who shall forward all
documents to the state coordinator. The state DRE coordinator shall forward the names and copies of
certification progress logs of the DREs they
have certified as having successfully completed all phases of the DRE training
program. The IACP will then credential each applicant and will register him as
a certified drug recognition expert.
Commentary: The IACP staff shall maintain current listings of persons certified as drug recognition experts. Upon notification that a person has met all requirements, staff shall complete and forward to the state coordinator a certificate indicating that he meets all requirements of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program as a drug recognition expert. The state coordinator shall forward these documents to the agency which, in turn, will present them to the DRE.
II. STANDARDS FOR CERTIFICATION AS DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERT
Because of the highly technical nature of the functions performed by the drug recognition expert, only persons experienced in the techniques of drug evaluation should instruct in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. In general, these instructors will be certified drug recognition experts with experience in performing drug evaluations and in providing testimony in court in the area of drug recognition. However, persons who possess specialized skills or credentials may be utilized to teach certain parts of the training course as associate instructors. Dedicated, qualified instructors are critical to the continued success of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
Certified instructors are responsible for observing, evaluating and verifying the performance of candidate DREs throughout the training and certification process. In addition, certified instructors must provide periodic update training to DREs already certified.
Also addressed in this section are standards for the use of instructor trainers in the program. These individuals are responsible for the training of DRE instructors.
2.1 Only persons certified as drug recognition experts may be certified as DRE instructors.
Commentary: Persons not certified as DREs but who possess knowledge, expertise or credentials deemed valuable to the program may be designated as associate instructors for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. Persons who might be considered for such designation may include medical professionals, attorneys and others who possess knowledge in a designated field of expertise. Associate instructors must be familiar with the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program and fully conversant with the lesson plans for their assigned blocks of instruction. Classes taught by associate instructors shall be taught in cooperation with certified DRE instructors to ensure consistency.
Each associate instructor should provide to the state coordinator a biographical sketch to be included in the file of approved instructional staff. The biographical sketch shall include those segments of the training curricula that the associate instructor is qualified to teach.
2.2 A DRE
desiring to become an instructor in the Drug Evaluation and Classification
Program shall make written application to the agency coordinator. The agency
coordinator will ensure that the candidate meets all requirements to become an
instructor and will refer the application to the state coordinator.
Commentary: The agency head shall verify to the training provider that a candidate instructor meets all prerequisites to enter DRE instructor training. Prerequisites may also include any state, local or agency requirements specified for instructors within the jurisdiction. The state coordinator shall provide to requesting agencies the administrative guide and sample application forms for candidate instructors.
2.3 The candidate shall satisfactorily complete the IACP/NHTSA-approved Drug Evaluation and Classification Instructor Training Program, or an approved equivalent, which shall include both knowledge and practical examination of candidate instructors.
Commentary: This requirement does not preclude states or local jurisdictions from placing additional requirements on persons wishing to teach in the local law enforcement community.
2.4 Upon satisfactory completion of the IACP-approved classroom portion of training or completion of an equivalent program, the student shall be designated as a candidate instructor for purposes of completing instructor certification. To complete instructor certification, the candidate instructor must
· teach for a minimum of two hours in the classroom portion of an approved drug recognition training program; and
· supervise the administration of not less than two drug evaluations performed by candidate DREs during certification training.
The candidate instructor’s progress shall be monitored and evaluated by at least one certified DRE instructor.
Commentary: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the IACP have developed a training curriculum for instructors in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. The learning objectives for this program emphasize specific techniques for teaching the specialized information contained in the drug recognition training program.
The Technical Advisory Panel shall be responsible for reviewing and evaluating alternative training programs submitted by agencies. Those programs meeting or exceeding the approved learning objectives for instructor training shall be deemed “equivalent.” This does not preclude agencies or states from adopting more stringent standards.
2.5 Upon satisfactory completion of instructor training, copies of all documentation, including instructor progress logs, examination scores and instructor evaluations, shall be forwarded to the appropriate DRE coordinator. The agency DRE coordinator will forward these documents to the state coordinator who shall certify that they have successfully completed all phases of DRE instructor training. The IACP will then credential each applicant and will register him as a certified DRE instructor.
Commentary: The IACP staff will maintain a current register of persons certified as instructors in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. Upon notification that a person has met all requirements, the staff shall complete and forward to the state coordinator a certificate indicating that he/she meets all requirements as a DRE instructor. The state coordinator shall forward these documents to the agency who, in turn, will present them to the DRE instructor.
The administrative guidelines shall provide sample forms for necessary progress logs and certification documents.
2.6 To ensure the proper conduct and delivery of the approved curriculum, all training sessions conducted as part of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program shall be coordinated by a certified DRE instructor who has previously instructed. All classes taught by associate or candidate instructors shall be supervised directly by a certified DRE instructor.
Commentary: To ensure that all training classes are conducted in accordance with applicable standards, it is recommended that the instructor coordinating the training program have a minimum of one-year experience as a drug recognition expert instructor.
2.7 An instructor trainer shall have demonstrated proficiency as an instructor.
2.8 An instructor trainer must be knowledgeable of and have audited all phases of the Drug Evaluation and Classification training program and must be fully conversant with the student and instructor manuals.
Commentary: An instructor trainer must present evidence of the satisfactory completion of the NHTSA/IACP Instructor's Development Course or equivalent. Instructor trainers must be familiar with the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program and fully conversant with the lesson plans for their assigned blocks of instruction. To ensure consistency, classes taught by instructor trainers shall be taught in cooperation with certified DRE instructors.
Each instructor trainer shall provide to the appropriate DRE coordinator a biographical sketch to be included in the file of approved instructional staff. The biographical sketch shall include those segments of the training curricula that the instructor trainer is qualified to teach.
The state coordinator should maintain a record of persons qualified as instructor trainers in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
2.9 The course manager shall perform four duties: planning and preparation, on-scene course management, data collection, and reporting. These responsibilities involve the following:
1. Assigning instructors, and verifing in advance that the training is conducted in the standardized manner and that it is properly evaluated;
2. Ensuring at the training site that all necessary conditions exist to maximize the students’ ability to learn;
3. Collecting certain data following every training event and forwarding it to the host state coordinator; and
4. Preparing a comprehensive report following every training event.
III. STANDARDS FOR RECERTIFICATION
Recertification is necessary to ensure that DREs and DRE instructors maintain proficiency. Just as the standards in the previous sections have outlined the criteria for original certification, the standards outlined in this section are required to ensure that professional integrity is maintained throughout the recertification process.
3.1 The following records concerning certification and recertification shall be maintained:
Individual DRE/ Copies of all drug evaluations
DRE Instructor Evaluation logs
Certification and recertification progress logs
Agency DRE Coordinator Copies of evaluation logs
Certification progress logs
Copies of certificates
Instructor ratings and summaries of student critiques
Records of classes taught by each instructor
State DRE Coordinator and/or Copies of evaluation logs (optional)
IACP Staff Certification progress logs
File of certified DREs and instructors
Commentary: Guidelines for the retention of pertinent records concerning the program operation help to ensure integrity of the program and provide valuable information for purposes of statistics and court verification of training. Other records as deemed appropriate by local agencies or certification commissions may be required of the individual DRE or the appropriate DRE coordinator.
3.2 DREs shall be required to renew their certificates of continuing proficiency every two years. A one-year grace period following the lapse of certification may be allowed for those not meeting recertification standards. During the grace period, the DRE may be rectified without having to repeat the original certification process.
3.3 The state coordinator shall be notified of those DREs in need of recertification at least six months prior to the expiration of the certificates. The state DRE coordinator shall forward to the IACP staff required documentation indicating the completion of recertification requirements. The staff will issue new cards when requirements are met.
Commentary: In the absence of a state coordinator, the TAP regional coordinator will perform these functions.
3.4 A DRE shall demonstrate continuing proficiency by
F Performing a minimum of four (4) acceptable evaluations since the date of last certification, all of which shall be reviewed and approved by a certified DRE instructor and one (1) of which shall be witnessed by a certified DRE instructor. These evaluations may be performed on subjects suspected of drug and/or alcohol impairment or during classroom simulations; and
F Completing a minimum of eight hours of recertification training since the date of the DRE's most recent certification, which may alternatively be presented in two sessions of no less than four hours, and which shall be consistent with any IACP standards for such training; and
F Presenting an updated resume and rolling log to the appropriate coordinator or his/her designee for review.
Commentary: All coordinators are responsible for maintaining the integrity of the program, and the appropriate coordinator, consistent with this responsibility, is encouraged to withhold recertification for, or refer for remediation, any DRE whose rolling log indicates an unacceptable level of accurate evaluations, as indicated by toxicology results.
3.5 When a DRE has completed all requirements for recertification, a certified DRE instructor shall verify to the appropriate DRE coordinator that minimum recertification requirements have been met.
3.6 A certified instructor shall maintain instructor certification so long as DRE certification is maintained.
Commentary: An instructor may be decertified for cause, such as for conducting substandard instructional programs, and still maintain certification as a DRE.
IV. STANDARDS FOR DECERTIFICATION OF DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERTS
The standards in this section outline the circumstances and procedures for decertifying individual DREs or DRE instructors. In order to ensure that standards of performance are maintained, a means is needed for removing from the roles of the program those persons unable to meet the criteria of competence and professionalism. The responsibility for maintaining program standards lies with the agency and the appropriate DRE coordinator. It shall be incumbent upon all DRE coordinators to ensure that certified DREs meet approved standards for conduct and qualifications.
4.1 Decertification shall occur when a DRE or DRE instructor fails to meet minimum standards and requirements for certification or recertification, or demonstrates evidence of
· poor performance,
· inconsistent findings, or
· other substantiated acts on the part of the DRE that reflect discredit upon the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
Commentary: All DREs are responsible for maintaining and forwarding to the appropriate DRE coordinator information regarding required training or experience. If such information is not provided in a timely manner, certification will lapse.
Local agencies and licensing/certification bodies may, at their discretion, establish certification and decertification criteria to conform to local laws or rules. Nothing in these standards should be construed to overrule local authority in establishing standards no less stringent for the performance of officers in this area or to prevent an agency from following internal disciplinary or administrative personnel procedures.
4.1.1 Before decertification is finalized, a DRE or DRE instructor will be given written notice by the initiating DRE coordinator of the reasons for decertification. The subject of the action shall have the opportunity for a written or an oral response to the initiating DRE coordinator.
4.2 Requests for voluntary decertification will be honored when submitted by a DRE or DRE instructor to the section IACP staff and with approval of the agency appropriate DRE coordinator.
4.3 Cases involving poor performance or inconsistent findings shall be referred to the agency appropriate DRE coordinator for investigation, recommendation and action.
4.4 Certification of a DRE shall not terminate as long as the DRE meets the requirements of Standards 1.1 and 4.1.
4.5 The state DRE coordinator,
upon the recommendation of the agency DRE coordinator or based on substantiated
independent knowledge shall initiate the decertification process against a DRE
or DRE instructor. The state coordinator
shall inform the IACP staff of all decertification actions. In instances where
these complaints have not been resolved by the appropriate coordinator, these
complaints will be referred to the state’s Governor’s Office of Highway Safety
V. STANDARDS FOR REINSTATEMENT OF A DECERTIFIED DRUG
The standards in this section outline the procedures for reinstating a previously decertified DRE and/or DRE instructor.
5.1 An individual can be reinstated as a DRE when the following conditions are met:
(1) The applicant must pass the 100-item exam (same as that given at the end of the DRE school, or the make-up exam) as witnessed by a certified DRE instructor, with a score of at least 80%.
(2) The applicant must complete four (4) hands-on drug evaluations within a one-year period from the date of request to be reinstated.
(3) The applicant’s eligibility and reinstatement as a DRE is reviewed and approved by the DRE’s agency and the agency, state, and TAP regional DRE coordinators, where applicable.
5.2 An individual can be reinstated as a DRE instructor when the following conditions are met:
(1) The applicant meets conditions 5.1 and is reinstated as a DRE.
(2) The applicant’s eligibility and reinstatement as a DRE instructor is reviewed and approved by the DRE’s agency and the agency, state, and TAP regional DRE coordinators, where applicable.
Commentary: In many instances, a DRE certification lapses through no fault of the DRE due to transfers, promotions, etc., and recertification requirements have not been met. In many cases a DRE may want to reapply DRE skills with a new assignment. IACP suggests that a written request for reinstatement to the program come from the applicant to the appropriate coordinator, through the proper agency channels. A form is provided by the IACP to DEC state and TAP regional coordinators for the purpose of reinstatement. All coordinators are cautioned to conduct a thorough check on the cause of the applicant’s decertification and reason for application for reinstatement.
VI. STANDARDS FOR AGENCY PARTICIPATION
Since 1986, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has endeavored to expand the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. In an effort to contain costs, ensure the most efficient use of resources and maintain a high probability of program success, NHTSA developed site selection criteria to be used in assessing potential suitability of sites. Factors such as demographics, favorable legislation, agency operations and system support for the program are considered in evaluating potential sites for the implementation of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
It is recognized that law enforcement agencies, in considering the implementation of new traffic enforcement programs, must be aware of both short- and long-term costs that are involved. In order for the program to achieve maximum results, the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program requires that agencies commit considerable resources long term to the detection and apprehension of the drug‑impaired driver.
6.1. A DEC Program site should be a state, a political subdivision of a state, or a group of subdivisions.
Commentary: Experience has shown that a DEC Program will take firm root only if the resources to support the program are concentrated in a relatively small geographical area, such as a major city or county. Given that these new sites will begin operations with a small cadre of DREs, a community‑focused DEC Program will allow the DREs to respond quickly to the location(s) where drug‑impaired drivers might be taken for processing. By concentrating its forces, the program can ensure that a qualified DRE is available at any time or place needed. The concentrated focus of a community‑based program allows the DREs ample opportunity to conduct evaluations and maintain skills at peak proficiency.
6.2 A proposed program site should be able to produce enough drug‑impaired driving arrests to (1) justify the expense of training the DREs, and (2) provide enough evaluation opportunities for DREs to maintain proficiency.
Commentary: Studies indicate that up to 40 percent of the persons arrested for impaired driving are actually under the influence of drugs, either alone or in combination with alcohol. Thus, a site should produce an adequate number of DUI arrests annually per DRE to provide ample drug evaluation opportunities.
6.3 Prior to implementation of a DEC Program, a site should be located in a state with an implied consent law that
F Explicitly allows the chemical test sample to be analyzed to determine the presence and/or concentration of drugs other than alcohol;
F Explicitly indicates that the “consent” applies to multiple tests, i.e., that the person is “deemed to have given consent to a test or tests of blood, breath or urine”; and
F Empowers the arresting officer and/or the law enforcement agency to select the types of chemical tests to be taken, rather than giving the suspect the option of choosing the tests.
In the absence of an implied consent law, a site must certify that the above three criteria are met and apply to the Technical Advisory Panel for consideration for acceptance to the program.
Commentary: It is pointless to evaluate drivers for drug‑induced impairment unless those found to be so impaired can be prosecuted successfully. The requirements for multiple chemical tests are essential because both a breath test and blood or urine tests are integral components of the drug recognition process. In addition to implied consent legislation, the effectiveness of DEC programs is greatly enhanced by legislation that
F Allows the fact of a suspect’s refusal to submit to the chemical test to be introduced as evidence in court; and
Makes it an offense to drive under the influence
of any drug.
6.4. At least eighty percent (80%) of a participating agency’s traffic law enforcement officers must be fully trained and proficient in the use of the IACP/NHTSA-approved standardized field sobriety tests, including the horizontal gaze nystagmus test.
Commentary: It is recommended that the agency’s SFST training program is consistent with the IACP/NHTSA model curriculum. In particular, the training must contain the specified number of hours and include at least two approved alcohol workshops.
6.5 Participating agencies must maintain accurate and timely records of
· Alcohol and drug‑related arrests and convictions;
· Alcohol and drug offense processing time;
· All toxicological examinations; and
· All drug recognition evaluations to include documenting and collecting of basic data which includes, but is not limited to, the name and age of arrestee, date of arrest, sex, the DRE opinion, and the name of evaluator.
Commentary: In order to evaluate critically the effectiveness of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, it is necessary that, at a minimum, the above records be maintained. In addition to evaluation purposes, the records may prove beneficial in establishing program validity for court purposes. The IACP and NHTSA has endorsed a data collection software program which DECP states are encouraged to use.
6.6 Participating agencies should have the capability to establish centralized booking or processing of all DUI arrestees.
Commentary: The ideal situation is one in which all persons arrested for DUI are taken to a single location for processing. One or two DREs could then be stationed at that location to ensure prompt access to all suspects apprehended for drug‑impaired driving. However, it is feasible for a jurisdiction to have a few centralized processing facilities as long as there are enough DREs to staff them adequately and enough DUI arrests to ensure that the DREs conduct frequent evaluations.
6.7 Each location where DRE evaluations are conducted must have adequate facilities, including
F A room sufficiently large to permit unobstructed administration of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests;
F A separate room that can be completely darkened for the eye examination;
F Storage space for test data forms, reference documents, blood pressure kits, etc;
F Access to breath testing equipment producing on‑the‑spot results; and
F Facilities and materials for collecting blood and/or urine samples.
Commentary: Because of the unique requirements of the DEC Program, it is sometimes more economical for several agencies within a site to share DUI processing facilities. Other desirable characteristics for a DUI processing facility include
F Adequate holding cells for arrestees;
F Separate interrogation and report writing areas that provide privacy from the general prisoner population; and
F Testing facilities that are out of main traffic patterns and allow the drug evaluation process to be performed without interruption or distraction.
6.8 Participating agencies must have access to laboratories that are capable of identifying the presence of the most commonly abused drugs when these drugs are present in sufficient concentrations to produce impairment.
Commentary: Ideally, the laboratories will also be able to identify the concentration of these drugs. In any case, the accuracy of the chemical analysis should be consistent with state-of-the-art drug testing. In other words, screening tests are not sufficient; a jurisdiction should be able to produce a confirmatory analysis. Although either blood or urine samples are acceptable, it is best if the jurisdiction has the ability to test both.
6.9 All agencies and states interested in participating in a Drug Evaluation and Classification Program must have the following endorsements:
F The state governor’s representative for highway safety;
F The chief elected official of each political subdivision to be included in the site;
F The commanding officer of each participating law enforcement agency;
F The administrative judge of each court that tries people arrested for DUI within the jurisdiction;
F The chief prosecuting attorney for each court in the jurisdiction; and
F Representatives of any other agencies that would be involved in covering the costs of developing and sustaining the DEC Program.
DRUG EVALUATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE
With grant assistance from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the International Association of Chiefs of Police has developed certification standards and administers the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. Under these administrative guidelines, it will be the responsibility of the individual and all coordinators to ensure that specific requirements of the standards are met. The staff at the IACP will be responsible for maintaining records, issuing certificates of completion, coordinating certain training-related events and maintaining and updating training materials as required.
The following procedures have been developed by the staff of the International Association of Chiefs of Police for use by agencies participating in the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program and wishing to certify drug recognition experts and instructors in their employ.
Obtaining certification as a drug recognition expert or DRE instructor ensures that an individual meets minimum requirements for training and experience as established by the IACP and the IACP Technical Advisory Panel. The Drug Evaluation and Classification Administrative Guidelines accompany the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
the certification process to operate efficiently, it is recommended that
coordinators at the agency,
and state, and regional levels be
identified. The responsibilities of the coordinators may include reviewing the
qualifications of the candidate DREs, supplying required documentation that
minimum standards have been met, and maintaining individual and program
records. The coordination functions may be performed by one person or may be
divided among several persons, as operational needs demand.
1. NOTIFICATION OF CANDIDATE DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERTS
When an individual has completed all agency application requirements for admission for training as a drug recognition expert, the agency shall provide the following information to the appropriate coordinator:
1. Candidate's name
2. Mailing address
3. Sponsoring agency
4. Social security number
5. Verification that candidate has satisfactorily completed a NHTSA/IACP-approved course in Standardized Field Sobriety Testing
In addition, the appropriate DRE coordinator shall provide the above information to the agency or individual responsible for providing training to ensure that all students meet prerequisites prior to the beginning of the training phase:
State program coordinators shall forward to the IACP staff the above information on all candidate DREs at the following address:
International Association of Chiefs of Police
Division of State and Provincial Police
515 North Washington Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
2. OBTAINING CERTIFICATION AS A DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERT
All candidates for certification under the International Drug Evaluation and Certification Program must demonstrate completion of all requirements specified in Section I of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. Each candidate's progress toward meeting certification requirements shall be documented on the “Certification Progress Log,” which shall be supplied to all appropriate DRE coordinators by the IACP staff. Each candidate shall be responsible for maintaining a certification progress log.
Completion of each step in the certification process shall be verified by the signature of at least one certified DRE instructor. Final recommendation for certification must be verified by the signatures of two certified instructors. Upon completion of all certification requirements, copies of the certification progress log shall be forwarded to the agency DRE coordinator and to the state coordinator. The state coordinator shall verify all information on the certification progress log and ensure that all entries are correct. The state coordinator shall forward to the IACP staff a copy of each candidate's completed certification progress log.
Upon receipt of the completed certification progress log, the IACP staff shall ensure that all necessary information is complete. Upon verifying that the information is complete, the IACP staff shall forward to the DRE state or TAP regional coordinator a certificate of completion and an identification card signifying that the candidate has met or exceeded all requirements for certification as a drug recognition expert. In the event that proper documentation is not provided, notification will be sent to the state coordinator indicating the specific reasons(s) for non-qualification.
The IACP staff shall maintain records of all certified DREs. Each record will contain the following information:
2. Social Security Number
4. Mailing address
5. Telephone number
6. Dates of all events specified on the progress log
7. Name(s) of instructors verifying completion of training events
8. Date certificate is awarded
9. Date certification expires
3. OBTAINING CERTIFICATION AS DRE INSTRUCTOR
Candidates for certification as DRE instructors must demonstrate that they meet all requirements specified in Section II of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. The candidate instructor’s progress toward completing certification requirements shall be documented on the form, “DRE Instructor’s Certification Progress Log,” which shall be supplied by IACP staff to all appropriate DRE coordinators. The individual candidate DRE instructor shall be responsible for maintaining the log.
Completion of each step in the instructor certification phase shall be verified by at least one certified DRE instructor. Upon completion of all certification requirements, copies of the DRE instructor's certification progress log shall be forwarded to the agency DRE coordinator and to the state DRE coordinator. The state DRE coordinator, after verifying that all information on the logs is complete and accurate, shall forward copies of all completed instructors' certification progress logs to the IACP staff.
Upon receipt of the instructor certification progress log, the IACP staff shall verify that all information on the log is complete. Upon verification, the IACP staff shall forward to the state coordinator a certificate of completion signifying that the candidate meets or exceeds all requirements of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program as a DRE instructor. The IACP staff shall send notification to the state coordinators that the instructor has been certified. In the event that the instructor does not meet all requirements for certification, notification will be sent to the state coordinators indicating the specific reason(s) for non-qualification.
The IACP staff will maintain records of all certified DRE instructors. Each record will contain the following information:
2. Social Security Number
4. Mailing address
5. Telephone number
6. Dates of all training events specified in the progress log
7. Name(s) of instructors verifying completion of training events
8. Date certificate was awarded
9. All pertinent information relating to the instructor’s experience and
Drug recognition expert instructors shall maintain certification as long as DRE certification is maintained. State coordinators will maintain a list of persons designated as associate instructors or as instructor trainers for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. In order that the list for instructors and associate instructors may be kept current and, therefore, of use to the participants, agencies hosting DRE training events (pre-schools, DRE training, instructor schools) should provide the state coordinator a list of all instructors and their instruction assignments.
4. PROCEDURES FOR RECERTIFICATION OF DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERTS
AND DRE INSTRUCTORS
As specified in Section III of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, all drug recognition experts must be recertified every two years following original certification. DRE instructors shall maintain their instructor certification as long as DRE certification remains in effect. All applicable recertification standards for DREs shall apply to DRE instructors.
The following process will be utilized to ensure timely notification and compliance with recertification requirements:
1. Eighteen (18) months following the date of original certification, the IACP will send a renewal advisory notice to state DRE coordinators.
2. The DRE shall forward to his state coordinator evidence of completion of all recertification requirements as well as a recertification form signed by his agency coordinator. The state coordinator, after signing the recertification form, will forward a copy to IACP staff.
3. Upon notification that a person has met all requirements under section III of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, IACP staff shall issue a card recertifying the DRE for a period of two years.
In the event that information verifying completion of recertification requirements is not received by the IACP staff prior to the expiration of certification, the IACP staff will notify the state coordinators that certification has expired. Following expiration of certification, the DRE may renew certification without penalty for a period of one year by providing proof of completion of recertification requirements. A decertified DRE wishing to be reinstated following the expiration of the one-year grace period must complete all training and certification requirements enumerated in Section V of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
5. DECERTIFICATION OF DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERTS
Decertification of a drug recognition expert may take place if one or more of the following conditions exist:
1. The requirements as enumerated in Section III of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program are not met by the individual DRE, allowing certification to lapse.
2. A DRE voluntarily requests decertification.
3. There is evidence of poor performance, inconsistent findings, or other acts on the part of the DRE that reflect discredit upon the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
In the case of a lapse of certification, the procedures in Section 4 of the Administrative Procedures shall be followed.
A DRE wishing to be decertified shall submit a written request through the appropriate agency and state coordinators to the IACP staff. Upon receipt of approval of the request by the state DRE coordinator, IACP staff shall remove the name of the individual from the list of certified DREs.
Agency DRE coordinators shall monitor the performance of DREs within their agencies and shall investigate complaints arising from their activities in the drug evaluation area. When, in the opinion of the agency coordinator, and with the approval of the agency head or his designee, a DRE’s actions warrant decertification, the agency shall notify the state coordinator that the DRE is no longer certified within that agency.
Nothing in this procedure should be construed as to prevent an agency from following internal disciplinary or administrative personnel procedures. The IACP staff will maintain records of all decertified DREs and the reason(s) for decertification.
6. APPROVAL OF DRUG RECOGNITION TRAINING CURRICULA
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) have developed a course of instruction to train police officers in the techniques of drug recognition. This course of training has been adopted by the IACP as the minimum training requirement for certification for DREs and DRE instructors. NHTSA and IACP are responsible for revising and updating the DRE training curricula.
The course of instruction adopted by the IACP requires a total of seventy-two hours of classroom instruction followed by field certification during which a candidate must participate in a minimum of twelve drug evaluations. In the course of the required drug evaluations, a candidate must encounter and correctly identify subjects under the influence of at least three different categories of drugs. The complete requirements for certification as a DRE are enumerated in Section I of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program.
In recent years, several training programs have been developed by police agencies and commercial training institutions with the aim of training individuals to detect persons impaired by drugs. A number of agencies currently utilize portions of the NHTSA/IACP approved program or variations of it in teaching officers the techniques of detecting the drug-impaired driver.
Section I of the International Standards of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program requires that a candidate for certification complete “...an approved classroom training course which shall, at minimum, achieve the learning objectives as stated in the IACP approved training curriculum.” The Highway Safety Committee of the IACP is charged with overseeing the operation and development of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. In order to maintain the high standards of the program, the committee has established the Technical Advisory Panel. Responsibilities of this panel, appointed by the IACP Highway Safety Committee, include the review of proposed alternative training programs to determine whether or not course content and learning objectives are consistent with approved standards.
Organizations wishing to submit proposed training curricula for review and approval as equivalent programs for the purpose of certifying individuals as drug recognition experts shall submit lesson plans, visual aids and any other required materials to the IACP staff. The IACP staff will submit the proposed course to the Technical Advisory Panel for evaluation. Courses that meet applicable standards and learning objectives shall be termed as equivalent courses. Completion of said courses shall qualify the candidate for certification as a DRE.